Failing to Face the Past

Failing to Face the Past pdf

Finally there’s a German film that criticizes the  failure of ordinary Germans  to face up to the  Nazi past.   Unlike many  recent  German films that blur the picture of what Germans knew and didn’t know,   Labyrinth of Lies, set in 1950s Germany,  reveals  how Germans  did all they could  to conceal the  Nazi atrocities and  let the perpetrators go unpunished.

The film is based on the true story of Fritz Bauer, an outlier prosecutor  who overcame the opposition of his countrymen and almost single-handedly pursued  German war criminals, leading to what eventually became known as the Frankfurt Auschwitz trials of the 1960s.

As there have been so many  movies and books about the Holocaust, most viewers will be surprised to learn that for decades after World War II, the subject was largely ignored both in Germany and around the world, which is why, in one telling scene early on in the film,  when the eponymous death camp Auschwitz name is mentioned, it is greeted with blank expressions.

The silence was still prevalent in 1970 when filmmaker Giulio Ricciarelli, who was then five years old, moved with his mixed Italian-German family from Italy to Munich.

“There was a lot of not talking about it in German homes when I was growing up,” Giulio Ricciarelli tells The Jerusalem Report  with a touch of irony. “When I would ask my mother what my German grandfather had done during the war, she would simply say that he wasn’t in the (Nazi) Party. It  just wasn’t something that families talked about around the dinner table.”

Ricciarelli got the idea for making Labyrinth of Lies from co-scriptwriter Elizabeth Bartel who came across a newspaper article about Fritz Bauer. He was surprised to hear about the opposition that Bauer ran into from his countrymen. “I had the wrong idea that somehow Germany began to confront the activities of the Nazis immediately after the war. But what I found out was that it did everything in its power to sweep it under the rug.”

Ricciarelli explains that he and Bartel worked very closely with historians in order to get the details of the period and Bauer’s investigation right but that they “took  one great liberty”  in creating a fictional character, a public prosecutor called Johann Radmann,  as the protagonist working under Bauer’s authority, who fights to bring the German perpetrators to  trial.

“We needed a character who could take us on an emotional journey,” notes Ricciarelli, referring to  the heroic arc that the Radmann character follows after  a journalist his tells him  that an Auschwitz survivor has spotted a former Nazi tormentor working as a school teacher. As the young lawyer learns for the first time about what went on in Auschwitz, he becomes more and more passionate about bringing the war criminals to justice.  He is repeatedly frustrated by the obstacles placed in his way by German officials, one of whom remarks in a widely shared view,  “Do you want every young man in this country to wonder whether his father was a murderer?”

Fritz Bauer, the real life initiator of the Auschwitz trials didn’t need to be enlightened about the Nazis. After being part of the German resistance movement, Fritz Bauer was incarcerated in a concentration camp in the 1930s and afterwards fled into exile in Denmark and Scandinavia.

“When he came back to Germany after the war, he was a sad, lonely figure,” observes Ricciarelli. “But he would not give up on having  the (Nazi) trial as a teaching experience for the German people.”

Ricciarreli, acknowledges that the number of Nazis brought to justice  was remarkably disappointing. Of the 8000 Germans involved in the murder of Jews at Auschwitz , only 22 were caught and put on trial. Most  received only light sentences.

“As a criminal trial it was pitiful,  but as a historical trial it was life-changing,”  says Ricciarelli, who  believes that Bauer did achieve his goal of raising public awareness about “the Auschwitz killing machine where everyone (who worked there) was guilty.”

He notes that at the time  West Germany’s statute of limitations enabled only the prosecution of Nazis who could be charged with murder.  “But Bauer made sure that among the defendants the entire Auschwitz hierarchy was represented, from a senior commander to a lowly guard,” observes Ricciarelli.

Labyrinth of Lies is Ricciarelli’s debut film as a feature film director. In preparing for the film, he planned out the composition of every shot on a storyboard, a laborious procedure for a two-hour long film. The result however is an  absorbing work full of striking  and often surprising images .  Despite the seriousness of the subject, he is able to lighten the drama with flashes of humor.

In one memorable sequence, Auschwitz victims are called to give their testimonies at the prosecutor’s office.  We only see a montage of their  faces and hands gesturing,  interspersed with the reactions s of the prosecutor’s staff, accompanied by elegiac choir music. Not a single word is heard.

“When people are quiet, the stories they tell are the most emotional,” explains Ricciarelli. “I felt it would be stronger to do it this way than through something like flashbacks.  Also,  I believe  that there are aspects of Auschwitz that I didn’t think I could ask any actor to do.”

Because  Labyrinth of Lies tells a universal story about how one individual can fight against the system and bring about change, it is not surprising that the film has been well-received by audiences outside Germany.

It’s also not surprising perhaps, that the film was readily funded by public German film foundations and that the city of Frankfurt, where most of the action takes place, provided the filmmaker with ready access to public institutions. After all, the film does show the beginning of Germany’s acknowledgement of its wrongdoings.

The film is however flawed in one major way. The real Fritz Bauer was actually Jewish, though he himself hid that fact, apparently in order to work unobtrusively  in the German justice system.

The film makes no mention of this, nor did Ricciarelli in his interview with The Jerusalem Report.

Arguably, because Bauer presented himself to the German public as a non-Jew, a case can be made for telling the story of the dissident prosecutor as he would have been seen through the eyes of the German people at the time.

Still, this type of omission echoes a pattern of deception that colors many German films that deal with the Nazi era. It can be seen in as innocuous a film as  Back on Track, (Sein letztes Rennen) a 2013 film about a nursing home, in which German  old-timers reminisce about their suffering in the early years after the war, yet fails to mention that they themselves may have had something to do with getting themselves into the economic woes that World War II created for Germans.  It can also be seen in the controversial Generation War,   (Unsere Mütter, unsere Väter), a 2013 war-time drama about young German soldiers which has been criticized for portraying the Nazis as being completely separate and different from ordinary Germans.

Ricciarrelli himself noted that many Germans still have trouble wrestling with their past. “After one of the screenings (of Labyrinth of Lies) in Germany, someone came up to me and told me that he had in his home a box that his grandfather left when he died. To this day, no one in his  family has been willing to open the box.”

Bernard Dichek